Virtual Globes are a seriously bad idea for thematic mapping

Google Earth is amazing. As we've commented here before, it continues to blow our minds and has also done wonders for the popularity of maps. And let's be honest, it looks super cool. There is no doubt that Google Earth is much sexier than that boring old atlas collecting dust on your shelf: It's interactive, seamlessly integrates distributed data sources, animates the surface of the earth over time, facilities virtual communities, can be customized by both developer and user, etc, etc. It's hard to not be impressed.

So all of our maps should be in Google Earth, right?

Wrong.

In fact, despite recent efforts to create a suite of thematic mapping approaches, Google Earth is a terrible environment for presenting many kinds of thematic maps. I'd go so far as to say that the 3D prism maps and 3D graduated symbol maps we see popping up in Google Earth are pure chart junk, of the kind Tufte warned us about repeated for past 25 years.

3D prism map of population in Google Earth 3D prism map in Google Earth (blog.thematicmapping.org) Read more...


SXSW: Axis Maps Roadshow

A couple weeks ago I was lucky enough to get invited to the SXSW Interactive conference to speak on a panel called Neocartography: Design and Usability Evolved. Here are some collected thoughts I had from running through the panel again in my head.

Do you need a cartography degree to make maps? As the only trained cartographer on the panel, they just couldn't wait to ask me this question (could I really say that Stamen's "non-cartographers" shouldn't be making maps?). I gave the popular answer, "No," but with a caveat: "You just need to care about cartographic design." Elegant design and clear communication are universal to all aspects of design. Cartographers have a slight leg up in the map game because we've been using our design chops to get good at applying these universal concepts to maps, but concepts like subtle use of color, visual heirarchy and map / UI composition can directly be applied from graphic design to map design. Incidentally, this is the hardest stuff to teach to cartography students. However, there is a lot of cartographic design that is uniquely geographic. Issues like projections, thematic symbolization and generalization don't exist outside of maps and largely exist because of the challenges of representing a complex world on a small, flat piece of paper. These same issues remain even moving from paper to the computer screen, but unfortunately they are largely ignored. On a preachy note, I think it is our responsibility as cartographers to CONSTRUCTIVELY engage ourselves with the new mapping discourse.

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Spicing up Google Maps in Flash

Note from the future: the example in this post broke somewhere along the line, but this whole post is obsolete anyway now that the Google Maps API allows styled maps!

This isn't news to everyone, but it's worth pointing out the fun things one can do with maps using the ActionScript ColorMatrixFilter. Tired of the boring old yellow and orange Google map in the Flash API (or any other map in Flash/Flex)? Lay down a ColorMatrixFilter on that sucker!

The ColorMatrixFilter, if it needs to be pointed out, essentially allows you to mix up the red, green, blue, and alpha channels of vector or raster graphics to produce exciting new colors. Adobe has a nice little article explaining it, along with an interactive demo.

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Indiemapper

Dear Map-Enthusiast,

We are very pleased to announce the launch of indiemapper.io. Indiemapper is a project that is very near and dear to our hearts. When we were starting as a company or even before that at the University of Wisconsin, we constantly talking about the tools available to us as cartographers. Talking might be putting it lightly... we were complaining.

The same things were coming up time and time again. Why is it so hard to make a simple map from digital data? Why did we need to keep PC's around when all of our design work was done on Macs? Why was all the current software so expensive when we were only using 10% of its total functionality?

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Map Evolution

Recently, we took on a nice little print mapping project for a few hotels located in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. The project involved making a one-sided, page-sized map showing hotel locations and the locations of a few points of interest in the area. The idea was that hotel guests could use the map to find their way around downtown as well as get a sense for where they were staying in relation to the university, interstates, airport, etc. The map was to be printed in grayscale, plus 3 spot colors (red, yellow, and blue).

Before starting out, we discussed the possibility of sharing the project with those interested in seeing all the stuff that goes into designing a map like this. The map design process is notoriously difficult to articulate and we're keen on the idea of making pieces of it more transparent, where possible. One option was to screen capture the hotel map as it appeared in the production software at regular time intervals from blank page to finished product. So, here is a sequence of 116 images, originally captured at 10-minute intervals, compiled to show the evolution of the hotel map in just under 2 minutes. Clearly, not all maps are made in the same way, but this should expose some of the kinds of design decisions made in a relatively simple project like this.


Election map follow-up

After posting our election map last month, we received a number of excellent comments and suggestions. It's late, but I thought I'd finally post the couple of variations of the map that I've managed to find time to put together. The maps below do two things differently from the original:

  • Vary the brightness of counties by population density rather than total population. This was a frequent suggestion. I think it has a few of its own drawbacks too, but it looks pretty good.
  • Different color schemes. Just for fun, I've used the purple color scheme that has become common in recent elections. I also liked the suggestion in one comment to saturate colors by margin of victory, so I've done that too. In these, full blue would be total Obama domination (Obamanation? Obamadom?), full red would be the same for McCain, and gray is an even split.
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Panning and zooming tutorial

Perhaps the most basic capability of any custom interactive map we make is the ability to pan and zoom the map.  That is, after all, the way to make something that might be the size of a wall poster in print fit on a computer screen and still be readable.

On my personal site I have posted a very basic tutorial and example of ActionScript code for a simple version of the way I typically code panning and zooming.  If you're looking for a starting point for panning and zooming, check it out.

Based on my own experiences, if you're looking for basic ways to improve upon that minimal functionality, consider these:

  • Tweening zoom changes
  • Replacing vector graphics with raster while moving the map (faster performance)
  • Dynamically drawing and placing symbols on the map
  • Drawing geographic data (shapefiles, kml, etc.) into a pan/zoom map

The Best of Both Worlds: Semi-transparent choropleth maps in GeoCommons Maker!

When we were building GeoCommons Maker! one of the key map design challenges we faced involved producing semi-transparent choropleth maps. Choropleth maps are perhaps the most common type of thematic map and are regularly used to show data that is attached to enumeration unit boundaries, like states or counties. Ever seen a red state / blue state election map? This is a basic choropleth. There are a lot of more sophisticated ways that choropleths can be made to best represent a given data set, for example, by playing around with classification, categorization, choice of color scheme, etc., but we won't get into those here.

I want to talk about color. Traditionally, choropleth maps are read by looking at the general pattern of unit colors and/or by matching the colors of specific map units to a legend. Other reference data is often removed from the map because it is either, 1) not necessary to communicate the map's primary message or 2) makes communicating this message more difficult. It could be argued, for example, that other reference map information, like green parks, gray airports, brown building footprints, and blue water distract readers from seeing the general pattern of choropleth colors on the map, which is where the map's most important message can be found.

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Simplicity, not Simple

The first time I used Google Maps I knew that the world of cartography had just gotten a lot more interesting. It blew my mind. What really struck me then (and still does today) is that I didn't have to learn how to use it: It just worked. It didn't come with a manual, and I didn't need a class in it. Rather, I would think, "Hey, I wonder if..." and sure enough it did just that. First try. It worked. What was happening was that my expectations of the map and the feedback it gave—and the speed at which it gave that feedback—left me feeling empowered to explore more, rather than frustrated or confused.

This is true of all the best tools in our lives: they make us feel confident (even smart), not intimated or confused or frustrated. And they quickly become completely transparent. The master violinist, photographer, or painter all work so comfortably with their tools that they are able to translate their powerful and nuanced intentions into a physical reality. We've all experienced this – when the interface between our cognitive and emotional selves and the world around us disappears and we are able to lose ourselves in a great book or a great movie (you cease to realize you're sitting in the theatre watching reflected light on a screen or scanning printed characters on page).

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The trouble with pies

I made mention of 3D pie charts in an earlier post and thought I'd outline exactly why they are such a bad idea. As both a teacher and designer I campaign hard against "chart junk" and the needless and confusing eye candy tricks that software companies create to clutter-up our lives. I know these companies need to offer something to try and convince us to upgrade to the new version, but let's be clear: drop-shadowing every element on the page, or adding an outer glow to the text isn't going to make your message any clearer, and will most likely distract from the very thing you're trying to show. My design philosophy can be summed up as:

In cartography, aim to be clear, not cool.

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